未来之路_城市规划的一场革命

发布时间:2021-06-22 10:33:45

寰 宇 新 知·扫 描

tropolis now: age-friendly features in New York.
Streets Ahead: A Revolution in Urban Planning 未来之路:城市规划的一场革命 By Laura Spinney Cities of the future won’t be filled with androids1 but with ‘silver citizens’. And that means a
revolution in urban planning
未来的城市里,随处可见的不会是机器人,而是“银发一族”。这意味着城市规划亟待一场革命。

With its dizzying skyline2 and unforgiving3 taxi-drivers, New York City might not strike you as the ideal place to grow old gracefully. Nevertheless, last month the city’s mayor, Michael Bloomberg, picked up a certificate declaring it to be the first member of a global network of age-friendly cities.
The World Health Organisation (WHO), whose initiative the network is, wants the people who run the world’s cities to think more deeply about the needs of ‘silver citizens’. The world’s greatest cities were usually planned by, and for, ablebodied men. But society is changing. As people live longer, more and more city-dwellers are negotiating the urban environment while coping with some degree of physical or mental impairment4.
“Whether somebody is disabled or not depends on two things: their physical capacity and the environment they live in,” says John Beard, director of the WHO’s Department of Ageing and Life Course, who is based in Geneva, 荩

纽约市,那里有着令人目眩的空中轮廓 线,也有对人颇不友好的出租车司机,你也许 想不到它会是一个让人能够体面养老的理想 之地。不过,就在上个月,纽约市长迈克尔·布 隆伯格获得了一份证书,宣布该市成为全球 年龄友好型城市网的首个成员。
倡建该网络的世界卫生组织希望,全世 界的城市管理者能够更精心地考虑“银发一 族”的需要。过去,世界上最大的城市通常都 是由那些体格健全的人所规划的,也是为他 们服务的。然而社会在改变。随着人们寿命的 延长,越来越多的城市居住者正在适应城市 的环境,但同时也承受着某种程度的身体或 精神损害。
总部设在瑞士日内瓦的世卫组织老龄化 及生命历程部负责人约翰·比尔德说:“一个 人是否残疾取决于两件事— ——他们的体格荩

52 English Digest Sep. 2010

寰 宇 新 知·扫 描

Switzerland. It may be unrealistic to expect cities to change their 以及他们所生活的环境。”期望城市现有

existing infrastructure, but he believes that with good planning and 基础设施的改变可能是不现实的,但是他

age-conscious prioritisation of investment, the quality of life of the 相信只要规划得当,同时在投资时优先考

elderly can be improved immensely.

虑到老年人,那么老年人的生活质量就会

A whole new academic field, environmental gerontology5, 得到极大的改善。

aims to identify how that can be achieved. Old age is a time when

一个全新的学术领域—— —环境老年

people become profoundly vulnerable to their environment. A 学—— —便是为了指明如何实现这一目标。

visually impaired person, or a person who cannot climb into a bus, 人老以后,极易受到其所处环境的影响。

is immediately restricted in his or her movements in a city, for 例如,一个视力受损的人或者一个无法登

example. But many of the problems that such people experience 上公共汽车的人,会立即感到在城市里行

may also be experienced by younger, healthier people. “Pedestrian 动不便。但是这些人所面临的麻烦或许也

crossings are made for Olympic runners,” one elderly Canadian 是那些比他们年轻和健康的人所体验到

reported in a WHO survey—a sentiment6 with which wheelchair 的。加拿大的一位老人在接受世卫组织调

users and mothers of young children might concur7. As Beard says, 查时说:“人行横道是给奥运会赛跑选手

everyone stands8 to benefit from age-friendly cities.

设的。”— ——这一看法或许也会在坐轮椅

The *Big Apple9 is far from being fully age-friendly yet, he 的人和带小孩的母亲那里引起同感。诚如

says, but it is a long way ahead of many other cities, including 比尔德所言,每个人都势必会从年龄友好

London. It has already

型城市中受益。

begun to tackle, for

他说“,大苹果城”

example, two of the main

还远远没有达到年龄

obstacles elderly city-

友好型城市的全面标

dwellers report: a shortage

准,但它已经遥遥领先

of public seating and a

于其他许多城市,包括

shortage of lavatories10.

伦敦在内。比如说,纽

In New York City,

约已经开始解决老年

now, you can see flip-down

城市居民所反映的两

seating on the sides of buildings, and businesses are being encouraged to make their toilet facilities

To make it safer for older people, the city added four seconds to the time pedestrians are given to cross intersections like Broadway and 72nd Street.

大*汗沧蔚呢 乏和厕所的匮乏。
如今在纽约市, 你可以在建筑物两侧

available to elderly passers-by. “Neither of those requires 看到折叠座椅,该市还鼓励商铺向老年路

significant investment,” he says, but it means, notably, that elderly 人开放其厕所。他说“,这些都不需要很大

people are more likely to venture further from home.

的投入”,但显然意味着老年人更有可能

Other issues may require more investment. The New York 走出离家更远的距离。

authorities have identified *black spots11 for pedestrian accidents in

其他一些问题则可能需要较多的投

areas with large elderly populations; causes include fast-moving 资予以解决。纽约当局在有大量老年人口

traffic and uneven paving. Better pavement maintenance will 居住的区域,已圈定了行人交通事故的多

benefit everyone, but won’t slow traffic; and increasing 荩 发地点,原因包括车速太快、路面不荩

1. android[蘖覸ndr蘅覦d]n.(科幻小说中的)机器人,人形自动机 2. skyline[蘖ska覦la覦n]n.(建筑物、高山等在天空映衬下的)空中轮廓线 3. unforgiving[摭蘧nf藜蘖g覦v覦耷]a. 不饶人的;不宽容的;无情的 4. impairment[摭覦m蘖pe藜m藜nt]n. 损害,损伤 5. gerontology[摭d廾er鬑n蘖t鬑l藜d廾覦]n. 老年医学;老年病学;老人学 6. sentiment[蘖sent覦m藜nt]n.(基于情感的)观点,看法;情绪 7. concur[k藜n蘖k誻蘼(r)]vi. 同意,一致(with)

8. stand[st覸nd]vi.(因采取特定行动或作下特定 承诺而)定然会
9. Big Apple “大苹果城”(美国纽约市的绰号) 10. lavatory [蘖l覸v藜t藜r覦]n. 厕所;<主英> 抽水马
桶 11. black spot <英>(危机等的)焦点;不景气地区;
发生困难的地区;(道路的)交通事故多发地段

2010.9

53

寰 宇 新 知·扫 描

pedestrian crossing times penalises12 other sectors of the

*等。加强对路面的维护将使每个人都受益,

population, including the economically productive. It’s a 但又不会减慢车速。增加行人过马路的时间则

question of priorities, says Beard. “Are you giving priority to 会对其他人群不利,包括创造经济价值的人。

the people who are trying to get to the other side of the city 比尔德认为,这是个优先权的问题。“你是优先

in a car, or are you giving it to the people who are shopping, 考虑那些开车前往城市另一边的人,还是那些

walking and actually living in those areas?” he says.

购物、散步以及本就住在这块地方的人?”

Planning authorities have to take into account the

规划当局还必须考虑“灰发英镑”—— —即

increasing economic importance of the ‘grey pound’, spent 50 岁以上人士的消费支出—— —越来越重要的

by the over-fifties as consumers. Moreover, elderly people 经济意义。另外,由于老年人意味着医疗保健

represent a significant burden on healthcare and social 和社会服务资源所要承担的一项重负,所以让

services resources, so it makes sense to keep them healthy 他们尽可能长久地保持身体健康和生活独立

and independent for as long as possible.

是很有意义的。

Initiatives with that goal in mind are springing up

以此为目标的举措如春笋般在各地出现,

everywhere, and among the most popular is the lifetime 其中最流行的莫过于终生住宅的概念:也就是

home: the home designed for

为了人从摇篮到坟

life from the cradle to the

墓的一生需要而设

grave, with, for example, level

计的住宅,例如通向

access to the main entrance

正门的*坡和设在

and a lavatory on the ground

一层的厕所。在伦

floor. In London, all new

敦,所有新建的社会

*social housing13 must now

福利住房如今都必

meet such criteria, and that

须符合这些标准,而

target is likely to be extended

该目标可能会在明

countrywide next year. Some

年推广到全国。政府

property developers object to

估计每栋房屋的成

the costs, which the government estimates will

All new homes will be expected to be wheelchair-friendly by 本为 500 英镑,一些

2013, the UK government said.

房地产开发商由此

amount to £500 per house, but

表示反对,而慈善机

the charity Age UK believes it will work out cheaper than 构“老龄英国”认为这一方案要比“翻修”— ——

“retrofitting14”—adapting homes later on. “Over 20 years, an

即日后再对住宅进行改造—— —要来得便宜 。

age-friendly home can make substantial savings on “老龄英国”的发言人斯特凡诺·杰尔米尼说:

adaptation costs and, ultimately, NHS and social care costs “再过 20 年,一个年龄友好型住宅可以节省大

too, as it will prevent people from moving into residential 量的改造费用,最终也节省了国民保健服务系

care or hospital,” says Age UK spokesman Stefano Gelmini.

统和社会保障系统的开销,因为它会使人们免

People with dementia15 have more complex and subtle

于住进疗养院或医院。”

deficits. Impairments of memory and spatial orientation can

痴呆病人有着更复杂和更难以觉察的缺

make it difficult for them to find their way around, says 陷。牛津大学阿耳茨海默氏病专家戈登·威尔

Gordon Wilcock, an expert in Alzheimer’s disease at the 科克称,记忆力和空间方位感的损伤导致他们

University of Oxford, but their procedural memory, or 认路困难,但是他们的程序性记忆力—— —也就

memory for learned routines, is often preserved.

是对*得性惯常程序的记忆力—— —却往往保

This means that removing them from a familiar 存完好。

environment can be more detrimental16 than leaving them in

这意味着假如让他们离开熟悉的环境,可

one which may not be perfectly adapted to their needs. The 能要比把他们留在一个也许不会完全适应其

solution is to make those environments dementia-friendly. 需要的环境带来的不利影响更大。解决这个问

Research by architect Lynne Mitchell and colleagues 荩 题的办法就是使这些环境成为痴呆病人友荩

54 English Digest Sep. 2010

寰 宇 新 知·扫 描

at Oxford Brookes University suggests people with dementia rely on familiar landmarks or “street furniture”, such as red *pillar boxes17, to orient themselves. Excessive signage or changes in texture18 at ground level can confuse them, as can long, straight homogeneous19 streets. Having shops and other facilities grouped together can be helpful, preventing them from wandering and getting lost. In fact, says Wilcock, “the city can be a good place for people with Alzheimer’s”.
At the Bath Institute of Medical Engineering, Tim Adlam and colleagues are evaluating smart housing for people with dementia. Features include movement sensors, automatic lighting and pill dispensers, and verbal20 prompts21. Not only have carers reported that such living arrangements reduce their work load, says Adlam, but smart houses offer greater insight into the health problems of their occupants. One man with advanced dementia was able to live alone in such a flat for the last year of his life; the information fed back from the sensors revealed that his sleep was very disturbed—a problem his carers had not previously identified.
Benyamin Schwarz, an architect at the University of Missouri who edits the Journal of Housing for the Elderly, is not convinced cities can cater for all disabilities. Inevitably, he says, there will be conflicts between groups with different needs. Some elderly respondents to the WHO survey reported that tactile22 flooring designed to help blind people orient themselves at road junctions can be difficult to walk on, for example. “Every one of us ages in different ways,” says Schwarz.
No condition illustrates the random, and often highly selective, nature of decline better than a stroke, which can affect almost any brain function. One stroke victim might lose the ability to read signs, while another may experience partial paralysis or balance problems.
Yet Ana Palazon, a spokesperson for the Stroke Association, believes there are certain general principles, such as making entrances wide, that will benefit everyone. A recent movement in favour of‘universal design’ aims to gather such 荩

好型。建筑师琳内·米歇尔及其牛津布鲁克斯 大学的同事们所做的研究表明,痴呆病人依 赖熟悉的地标或“街头家具”—— —如红色的邮 筒—— —来定位。过多的标志或地面特征的变 化可能会把他们弄糊涂,就如那些同类的、又 长又直的街道一样。把商店和其他设施集中 到一起,可能会对防止他们走失有帮助。实际 上,威尔科克表示“,城市对于阿耳茨海默氏 病患者来说可以是个宜居之所”。
在巴斯医疗工程研究院,蒂姆·阿德拉姆 和同事正在对供痴呆病人使用的智能房屋进 行评估,其设计特色包括运动传感器、自动照 明设备和药丸配送器,以及语音提示等。阿德 拉姆说,不仅护理人员称这种日常居住设计 能够减少他们的工作量,而且它还能更敏锐 地洞察居住者的健康问题。一名晚期痴呆病 人在生命的最后一年里也得以独自生活在这 样的房子里。传感器传回的信息曾显示他的 睡眠很不好—— —这是他的护理人员过去未曾 发现的问题。
密苏里大学的建筑师、《老年之家》 杂志 的编辑本雅明·施瓦茨认为,城市并不能够满 足所有残疾人士的要求。他说,有着不同需求 的各群体之间必然会发生冲突。例如,接受世 卫组织问卷调查的一些老年人称,帮助盲人 在路口辨向的触感地砖走上去很硌脚。“我们 每个人衰老的方式都不一样,”施瓦茨说。
没有什么疾病能够比中风更能体现衰老 具有随机性且往往选择性很强的特点,因为 中风可能影响几乎任何一种大脑机能。一个 中风患者可能会丧失符号识读能力,而另一 个患者可能出现偏瘫或者*衡机能问题。
不过中风协会的发言人安娜·帕拉松认 为,还是有某些总的原则可以使所有人受益, 例如拓宽入口。最*倡导“通用设计”的运动 就是试图搜集这些指导原则,将之化为一套 好的做法,供设计终生住宅的建筑师采用。荩

12. penalise[蘖pi蘼n藜la覦z]vt. 使处于不利地位,妨碍;对待…不公* 13. social housing 社会福利住房 (在英国由地方政府或其他机构提供的低价
或低租住房) 14. retrofit[蘖retr藜尬f覦t]vi. 改型翻新 15. dementia[d覦蘖men蘩覦藜]n. [医] 痴呆 16. detrimenta[l 摭detr覦蘖ment藜l]a. 有害的;不利的 (to) 17. pillar box <英> 信筒,邮筒 18. texture[蘖tekst蘩藜(r)]n. 本质,实质;特征

19. homogeneous[摭h鬑m藜尬蘖d廾i蘼n覦藜s]a. 由相
同(或同类型)事物(或人)组成的;同种类的
20. verbal[蘖v誻蘼b藜l]a. 用言辞的,用文字的;文
字上的
21. prompt[pr鬑mpt]n. 提示;提词;提白;提醒
物 22. tactile[蘖t覸kta覦l]a. 能触觉到的,可触知的;
有形的

2010.9

55

寰 宇 新 知·扫 描

The World’s Happiest Countries

世界上最幸福的国家

*By and large1, rich countries are happier—and that’s no coincidence.
大 致 来 看 ,富 裕 的 国 家 更 为 幸 福 — — — 这 不 是 巧 合 。

*In the wake of2 their World Cup loss, residents of the Netherlands may be feeling depressed. But there’s reason to believe they won’t be *done in3 by the agony of defeat: According to a recent poll, the country is one of the happiest in the world.
Championship-winning Spain, on the other hand, was swept with euphoria4 and national pride, but that may have been an unfamiliar feeling. The country ranks No. 17 of 21 European countries in terms of happiness.
The fact is good times probably have more to do with the size of your wallet than the size of your trophy shelf. The five happiest countries in the world—Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands—are all clustered in the same region, and all enjoy high levels of prosperity. 荩

By Francesca Levy
世界杯失利可能会让荷兰人感到沮 丧,但有理由相信,他们不会被失利的痛 苦击垮。根据最*的一项调查,荷兰是世 界上最幸福的国家之一。
另一方面,世界杯夺冠让西班牙举 国欢腾,充满了民族自豪感,但这种感觉 或许却是他们并不熟悉的。在“幸福排行 榜”上,西班牙在 21 个欧洲国家中列第 17 位。
事实上,开心时光可能与其说跟奖杯 架大小有关,不如说跟钱包大小有关。世 界 上 最 幸 福 的 五 个 国 家 分 别 是 丹 麦 、芬 兰、挪威、瑞典和荷兰,这几个国家都聚集 在同一地区,并且经济都高度繁荣。 荩

荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩荩

principles into a set of good practices for architects designing for lifetime living.
In the end, that is all the WHO is asking for. And Beard says that even the world’s poorest cities can factor23 in agefriendly features such as communal meeting places. By creating spaces where the generations can mix, some of the unhelpful stereotypes that cause segregation can be broken down. Young people find out that the elderly aren’t useless; the elderly learn to be less afraid of “hoodies24”. “Society has tended to marginalize25 the old and infirm26,” says Beard. “What we’re talking about is creating an environment that allows them to continue to participate.” ■

说 到 底 ,这 些 都 是 世 卫 组 织 所 呼 吁 推 行 的 东 西 。比 尔 德 称 ,即 使 是 世 界 上 最 贫 困的城市也可以把年龄友好型特色作为 规划要素予以计入,如公共聚会场所。创 建可让几代人杂处其间的场所,能使那些 导致人际隔离的一些无用的陈规旧套得 以破除。年轻人发现老年人也不是毫无价 值 ,老 年 人 也 学 会 不 那 么 畏 惧“ 小 青 年 ”。 比 尔 德 说 :“ 社 会 往 往 会 把 老 迈 者 和 体 弱 者边缘化。我们所讨论的就是营造一个能 使他们继续成为参与者的环境。” (涂颀 译自 The Independent Jul. 12, 2010)

23. factor[蘖f覸kt藜(r)]vt. 把…作为因素计入(into, in) 24. hoody[蘖h尬d覦]n. 连帽运动套装(或茄克衫等)
56 English Digest Sep. 2010

25. marginalize[蘖m藁蘼d廾覦n藜la覦z]vt. 使处于社会边缘;忽视,排斥 26. infirm[覦n蘖f誻蘼m]a.(尤指因年迈或疾病而)体弱的,虚弱的


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